Keep Tennessee CWD Free

Photo by Dr. Terry Kreeger

Keep Tennessee CWD Free

Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) is a major threat to Tennessee’s deer population along with the traditions and conservation funding it supports. It currently isn’t in our state and it’s up to each of us to learn more about it so together we can Keep Tennessee CWD Free.

What is Chronic Wasting Disease?

A deer with Chronic Wasting Disease. Credit Terry Kreeger

Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) is a highly-contagious neurological disease that infects deer, elk, and other cervids. It is similar to mad cow disease, scrapie that infects sheep, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease that affects humans. There is no known cure.

CWD causes the brain to degenerate, extreme weight loss, abnormal behavior, and then death. Infected animals can show no symptoms for years while still transmitting the disease throughout the herd.

The disease is caused by a misfolded protein called a prion that continues to multiply in the infected animal. Prions appear to infect new animals through contact with feces, urine, and saliva.

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Additionally, it is important to note that prions are neither viruses nor are they bacterium. They contain no DNA or RNA and therefore are extremely difficult to destroy. In fact, once they get into the environment (soil, etc.) it is not practical to remove them. Prions can persist in soil and even be taken up by plants. They can remain stable and infectious for very long periods of time. Thus, many in the wildlife science community believe that once they are established in an area, it is not realistic to ever remove them from the wild environment.

According to the CWD Alliance, CWD has been confirmed in 25 states, including our neighbors Arkansas, Mississippi, Missouri, and Virginia.

For more information about CWD, visit the CWD Alliance at

Is Chronic Wasting Disease the same as Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease (EHD) or Bluetongue?

No. Chronic Wasting Disease is a contagious disease with no known cure that has the potential to decimate wild deer populations.

Epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) and bluetongue, while both contagious, are two separate types of viral hemorrhagic disease that can cause short-term declines in localized cervid populations, but do not seem to have any significant effect on long-term herd health and survival.

Both EHD and bluetongue do cause a significant reduction in the physical health and appearance of deer (i.e., wasting) and ulceration, particularly of the mouth and tongue.

Because the viruses are transmitted by biting insects, such as midges, the disease comes and goes with the seasons. Additionally, some deer do survive EHD and bluetongue and are able to pass along immunity to their offspring. This is not the case with CWD as it is always fatal.

What does deer farming have to do with Chronic Wasting Disease?

Captive Deer by Dr. Terry Kreeger

Deer farming creates high-density populations of deer, making it an ideal environment for transmitting CWD. While deer farms are fenced, escapes of captive deer and elk occur when fences are damaged by storms. Deer farms also regularly transport deer across state lines, which appears to serve as a method by which CWD can be established in other captive and potentially wild deer herds. In Tennessee it is illegal to farm native deer species, with the exception of elk, which may be farmed under certain circumstances.

For these reasons, among others, the Federation opposes deer farming in our state.

Is controlling CWD an option?

In short, no. Preventing CWD is really the only effective means of controlling the disease. The prion is extremely resistant to control mechanisms and, to date, no method has successfully destroyed the prion and eradicated the disease from infected areas.

Further, once CWD is introduced to an area, attempts to contain the disease—including monitoring herds, testing deer, culling herds, containing infected populations, and enforcing strict carcass disposal and importation rules—are both extremely costly and controversial.

Why does Chronic Wasting Disease matter to me?

Father and daughter with a CWD free doe at a Federation youth deer hunt in West Tennessee

Chronic wasting disease is a serious threat to Tennessee’s deer population along with the food, traditions, and conservation funding it provides.

For example, in Wyoming wildlife biologists estimate a 10 to 20 percent decrease in its mule deer population each year because of CWD. In parts of southern Wisconsin, the infection rate has been measured between 30 to 50 percent of the deer sampled, with bucks seemingly more susceptible to CWD than does. Because CWD is always fatal, we know that parts of Wisconsin will lose at least half of its deer herd. This means if the disease is ever established in Tennessee, it is not unreasonable to say that it could greatly reduce hunting opportunities and the chance for new hunters to carry forward an important piece of American culture.

Currently, CWD is not thought to be transmittable to humans, but it is recommended that venison from a CWD-positive deer be disposed of–not consumed. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has issued this article on the potential of transmission of CWD to humans. While there have been no known cases of transmission at this time, recent research has shown transmission of CWD from infected venison occurring in primates who consumed deer meat over a three year period of time. This could eliminate an important source of food for many Tennesseans, while also removing an incentive to get out and hunt.

Because of these factors, states with CWD often see a drop in the number of deer hunters–the largest group of hunters in Tennessee. Money from sporting licenses and a special tax on firearms and ammunition fund a large portion of all wildlife conservation in Tennessee. And hunters are eight times more likely to support public conservation policies. Without these hunters, all wildlife conservation will suffer.

If CWD comes to Tennessee, much more than the deer population will be hurt.

What can I do to Keep Tennessee CWD Free?

There are several measures Tennesseans can take to keep Tennessee CWD free.

First and foremost, Tennessee law prevents importation, transportation, or possession of deer or other cervid carcasses from any area where there has been a known case of CWD. More information about this restriction is available here:

Additionally, Tennesseans can minimize the risk of CWD by taking these simple precautions.

  • Follow recommendations for disposal of the carcass and tissues of infected animals.
  • Field dress and bury the offal and tissues of harvested animals. Or, field dress and double bag the offal and tissue for disposal in a landfill. Use rubber or latex gloves.
  • Do not bait or feed game. In Tennessee, baiting game is illegal. The risk of CWD makes it even more important to avoid this practice. Baiting game attracts deer, thereby artificially increasing the deer population in a relatively small area. Should an infected deer be baited to the area, the risk of CWD transmission among the highly concentrated herd increases.
  • Avoid use of urine products. While it is not a known pathway for infection, urine has been shown to contain the prion that causes CWD. Additionally, it can also attract more animals to a smaller space, increasing opportunities for infection.
  • Report to TWRA any animal that appears to be acting abnormally or appears to be sick. If you harvest an animal that you suspect may be ill, request testing and share results with TWRA.

It is imperative to follow all regulations, restrictions, and recommendations issued by regulatory agencies, such as TWRA and the Centers for Disease Control.

For more information about CWD prevention, listen to this audio recording and visit

It is our responsibility to keep Tennessee CWD free.


  • Caused by a mis-folded protein known as a prion, not a bacterium or virus.
  • Similar to diseases found in other animals — scrapie in sheep, mad cow disease in cattle, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans.
  • There is no practical live test for CWD. Almost all testing for this disease has to be conducted on dead animals.
  • Causative agent, the prion, is both transmissible and infectious.
  • Transmission of CWD prions can be direct or indirect via body secretions and excretions—saliva, urine, and feces—and via the environment contaminated with prions shed in the above materials or present in decomposing carcasses.
  • CWD prions are extremely resistant to deactivation, and therefore remain infectious in the environment indefinitely.


  • 100% fatal — no cure
  • Occurs in cervidae (deer family)
  • Shown to affect cervids from age of 17 months to more than 15 years
  • Infects male and female cervidae
  • No strict seasonality
  • The minimal incubation period is approximately 17 months with no known maximum
  • Produces behavioral changes and wasting in symptomatic animals
  • Can reach remarkably high prevalence rates
  • Appears to infect male cervids at a higher prevalence

More from the Federation about CWD

Additional Information

To continue learning about CWD, we recommend the resources and articles below.

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